Meeting developing Asia and the Pacific’s demand for quality infrastructure and renewed urban environments that can support inclusive post-pandemic growth will require the steady but equitable acquisition of land that is usually owned or inhabited by prior occupants. However, geography, settlement patterns, conflicting cultures, and unique country-level land use problems often raise concerns about the fairness of land procurement and can undermine project viability. This brief examines land development challenges and the importance of balancing the rights and interests of vulnerable communities with broader infrastructure and redevelopment imperatives. Land is a necessary input in any infrastructure or renewal project. These projects require large and contiguous land parcels, which have to be procured in a time bound manner. The scale of economies associated with infrastructure provisioning makes it difficult for a competitive market to provide many of these services and can lead to market failure. Privately-held or indigenouslands are often required for public purposes. In many countries that favor private property rights, procuring land for public infrastructure through a market process is challenging. These challenges get further complicated as in many countries, landholding perhousehold is small. Dependency on land for subsistence is high. Property rights are often convoluted, and the connections to land go beyond the economic utility. All these together form a significant hurdle in obtaining or sharing land rights in Asia and the Pacific (and elsewhere).