This handbook addresses the assessment and manage ment of project impacts on fish resources, fisheries and fishing-based livelihoods, and specifically the assessment and management of physical and/or economic displace ment of small-scale subsistence and artisanal fishermen. These issues are primarily covered by the 2012 IFC Performnace Standard 5, Land Acquisition and Invol untary Resettlement, which identifies project-related restrictions of access to and usage of natural resources as a trigger for application of the standard. Specifically: “The Performance Standard applies to physical and/or economic displacement resulting from… (i) project situations where involuntary restrictions on land use and access to natural resources cause a community or groups within a community to lose access to resource usage where they have traditional or recognizable usage rights and (ii) restriction on access to land or use of other resources including communal resources such as marine and aquatic resources, timber and non-timber forest products, fresh water, medicinal, hunting and gathering grounds and grazing and cropping areas.” Further, PS5 stipulates that “where projects involve economic displacement only, the Client will develop a Livelihood Restoration Plan. For persons whose livelihoods are natural-resource based and where project-related restrictions on access apply, implementation of measures will be made to either allow continued access to affected resources or provide access to alterna tive resources with equivalent livelihood earning potential and accessibility. Where appropriate, benefits and compensation associated with natural resource usage may be collective in nature rather than directly oriented towards individuals or households.” PS5 recognizes the potential for projects to impact upon marine and aquatic resources and their use, and outlines the basis for mitigating such impacts. However the assessment and management of project impacts on such resources and their use is both complex and challenging. Accordingly, this handbook has been developed to help in the assessment and mitigation of project impacts on fishing-based livelihoods. This handbook utilizes the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach1 (SLA) to characterize livelihoods and thereby guide the assessment and restoration and devel opment of livelihoods impacted by displacement. The SLA presents a more overtly holistic view of livelihoods and livelihood restoration than that commonly applied through application of IFC PS5, by considering the relationship between capital assets (human, natural, financial, physical, and social) and the broader policy and institutional environment in determining livelihood strategies and achieving livelihood outcomes (e.g., well-being, income, food security, vulnerability/risk management, sustainable use of natural resources, etc.). As such, in addition to PS5, the SLA entails consider ation of some aspects of livelihoods that are addressed in other IFC Performance Standards, particularly PS1, Assessment and Management of Environmental and Social Risks and Impacts, and PS4, Community Health, Safety and Security. Finally, it should be noted that the Handbook does not provide a comprehensive treatment of all Performance Standard requirements as they might apply to fish resources and fisheries.