The concept of anthropological expert review (etnologicheskaya ekspertiza) was first introduced in Russian law in 1999. It refers to the practice of socio-cultural impact assessment in northern regions inhabited by indigenous peoples, and its practice is particularly relevant in the context of extractive industry projects. The theory and practice of anthropological expert review (AER) evolved in response to the perceived lack of analysis of indigenous peoples’ social and cultural issues in the standard environmental impact assessment (EIA) process for major industrial development. AER constitutes an expert opinion on the impact of such projects on the socio-economic development of indigenous communities and the preservation of indigenous peoples’ culture and traditional way of life. AER enables the consideration of traditional knowledge and indigenous peoples’ values in project-related decision-making. It also creates a viable mechanism for consultation. If an AER is conducted to a high standard, with sufficient consideration of indigenous concerns and consultation with communities, then it can build trust in a project.