Social investment (SI) programmes are described as the voluntary and/or regulatory contributions companies make to the communities and broader societies where they operate, with the objective of mutually benefiting external stakeholders and the company. There are many examples of companies implementing SI programmes that have made a significant contribution to the well being of the surrounding communities. The key aspect of such programmes is that they are approached with the same rigour as any other part of the business. However, despite companies’ best efforts and ongoing engagement, other social investment programmes fail to generate the goodwill that companies hope for, and instead become a burden beyond the originally intended period. Well-intended initiatives may even be used by stakeholders against the companies. Also, companies often find it difficult to quantify and measure their social performance. This guidance document aims to address the question of how to create successful and sustainable community investments and how to measure their success. There are many aspects closely linked to social investment, for example, local content efforts, stakeholder consultation or good governance initiatives. Given the importance of such topics, however, they should be discussed in their own right separately and fall outside the scope of this document.