The mandate of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (the EBRD or the Bank) is to promote transition in open market economies. To that end, the Bank operates with the belief that equality of economic opportunity is an intrinsic characteristic of a well-functioning market economy. However, gender inequality remains a constraint to equality of opportunity in most countries (if not all) around the world to varying degrees. Evidence from the EBRD’s gender gaps analysis in its Strategic Gender Initiative (SGI) shows that legal frameworks related to economic activities and participation (for example labour codes and regulatory frameworks) can appear gender neutral but mask the inequalities, discrimination and social barriers that exist in practice in the Bank’s countries of operations. Furthermore, laws tend to give different treatment to women’s and men’s economic and social rights in countries where legal pluralism prevails. As a result, multiple legal frameworks may coexist, although not necessarily in harmony. Interactions between plural legal frameworks and social norms impact on women’s ability and power to make decisions and pursue opportunities (empowerment), to speak up and be heard in the household and in society (voice), to make certain choices or act in the interests of the things they value (agency) and be equal contributors to economic and social life (participation). This report therefore aims to understand the significance of women’s voice, agency and participation in Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, Tunisia and Turkey, offering recommendations that should enable the Bank to design its operations and investments and engage in meaningful international policy dialogue on the advancement of gender equality in these countries.