ESS5 recognizes that project-related land acquisition and restrictions on land use can have adverse impacts on communities and persons. Project-related land acquisition1 or restrictions on land use2 may cause physical displacement (relocation, loss of residential land, or loss of shelter), economic displacement (loss of land, assets, or access to assets leading to loss of income sources or other means
of livelihood),3 or both. The term “involuntary resettlement” refers to these impacts. Resettlement is considered involuntary when affected persons or communities do not have the right to refuse land acquisition or restrictions on land use that result in displacement.