This handbook addresses the theme of evaluating performance through monitoring and auditing, which are key elements in the Leading Practice Sustainable Development Program for the Mining Industry. The aims of the program are to identify the key issues affecting sustainable development in the mining industry and provide information and case studies that illustrate how to establish a more sustainable basis for the industry.In updating the 2009 edition of this handbook, the authors were instructed to focus on those dimensions of practice where significant change and innovation had occurred. Therefore, the more detailed sections reflect the additional and updated information that was added to this 2016 edition. The authors were also asked to focus on ensuring that the handbook was more operational and practical. To that end, links to manuals and operational guidelines have been included wherever possible.The handbook addresses the ongoing assessment of impacts at all stages of a resource project, from pre-feasibility through planning, environmental and social impact assessment, development, operation, rehabilitation, decommissioning and closure.