Countries that are rich in natural resources and the consequent extractive activity around those non-renewable resources –minerals, oil and gas– present several possible analytic perspectives or approaches. An economic analysis allows us to estimate investment costs, corporate profitability and the contributions of the extractive sector to the national or regional economy. From the perspective of technological advances, extractive industries require the use of sophisticated, cutting-edge technologies with the potential to help reduce negative impacts. From an environmental perspective, due to the scale of these types of projects, there is an emphasis on the impacts of extractive activities on nature and biodiversity, the competition for the use of water resources, the consequences for crops and the possible contamination of rivers and aquifers, where the aforementioned technologies can play a decisive role in prevention and mitigation measures. From the social perspective, a similar sophistication is required to analyze the range of opportunities and challenges for stakeholders when dealing with the various phases of large projects, such as exploration, exploitation and closure, particularly considering the neighboring communities, which are generally rural.1 The following diagnosis analyzes the extractive sector from the perspective of the engagement between the main stakeholders: the Government, the Company and the Communities directly or indirectly affected by extractive activities. This diagnosis differs from the classic approach towards extractive activities as “a catastrophe for natural resources,” preferring to study and highlight those findings where effective stakeholder engagement represented an opportunity for development and contributed to the success of an operation.