“The climate crisis is the biggest threat to our survival as a species and is already threatening human rights around the world.” Global temperatures are rising due to greenhouse gas emissions produced by human activity. Increased temperatures are directly contributing to harmful effects, such as droughts, floods, sea-level rises, heatwaves, extreme weather events, loss of biodiversity and the collapse of ecosystems. Climate change poses a threat not just to human life, but to all life. It already affects the human rights of countless persons and the impacts are only getting worse. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights guarantees that all human beings are entitled to a social and international order in which their rights and freedoms can be fully realized. Climate change threatens this order and the rights and freedoms of all people. Without drastic action now, it will create dreadful harm. International cooperation and solidarity are vital for climate change mitigation and adaptation. It is equally important to approach climate action from a human rights perspective, as “human rights obligations, standards and principles have the potential to inform and strengthen international, regional and national policymaking in the area of climate change, promoting policy coherence, legitimacy and sustainable outcomes”. The Office of United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) advocates for urgent and ambitious climate change mitigation and adaptation, as well as a rights-based approach to climate action. This includes effective international cooperation based on the principles of equity, accountability, inclusiveness, transparency, equality and non-discrimination. State parties to the Paris Agreement have recognized the importance of human rights in climate action, agreeing “to respect, promote and consider their respective obligations on human rights” when taking climate action. The present fact sheet aims to promote better policies for both people and the planet by improving understanding of the threat climate change poses to human rights and the resulting human rights obligations of States and other duty bearers.