The United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (UNGPs) summarise an international consensus that States have a duty to protect human rights, corporations are responsible for respecting human rights, and victims should have access to effective remedy.The UNGPs have been particularly helpful in clarifying that the State duty to protect and corporate responsibility to respect are interconnected, yet different and mutually independent. This means that corporations should respect human rights regardless of the existence of State regulation in a given matter. Furthermore, this corporate responsibility does not depend on other considerations such as whether or not there is a risk to businesses themselves or on the potential benefits and costs of respecting human rights. This is not to say that the concept of corporate responsibility releases States from their own duty to protect human rights, including through effective policies, legislation, regulations, and adjudication. To the contrary, States should do what is possible and necessary to promote, encourage and, not least, mandate the corporate responsibility to respect human rights through their policies, laws, and regulations.