Companies around the world commonly hire or contract security personnel to protect their employees, facilities, assets, and operations, ranging from a single night watchman to a large contingent of private security guards, or even deployment of public security forces. While many companies already assess the types and likelihood of security threats posed by their operating environment, they are increasingly being called upon to consider the impacts their security arrangements might have on local communities. Good practice regarding the use of security forces is based on the concept that providing security and respecting human rights can and should be consistent. This translates into implementation of policies and practices that ensure security provision is carried out responsibly, with any response being proportional to the threat. Proactive communication, community engagement, and grievance redress are central to this approach, often through collaboration between security and community relations departments. Gender considerations are also important, as women often have different experiences and interactions with security personnel. Companies have a responsibility to ensure proper hiring, training, rules of conduct, and supervision of private security personnel. They should also encourage public security personnel to use proper restraint when responding to situations related to the project. These expectations are reflected in IFC’s Performance Standard 4: Community Health, Safety, and Security, which requires companies to 1) assess the security risk their operations may have or could create for communities; 2) develop ways to manage and mitigate these risks; 3) manage private security responsibly; 4) engage with public security; and 5) consider and investigate allegations of unlawful acts by security personnel. Performance Standard 4 applies to companies of any size and in any country or sector. Executive Summary | xi xii | Use of Security Forces: Assessing and Managing Risks and Impacts This Handbook provides practical, project-level guidance for IFC clients and other private sector companies operating in emerging markets to better understand and implement the security-related provisions outlined in Performance Standard 4. Specific guidance is provided throughout the document to differentiate expectations for companies with lower risks from those with more complex and challenging security-related risks and impacts.