The socio-cultural analyses produced by the IDB constitute a vast trove of knowledge about the peoples and institutions of our region—knowledge that would otherwise not exist. This knowledge constitutes one of the Bank’s foremost contributions and stands as a clear example of why the IDB’s role in knowledge production and development finance are mutually dependent and inseparable. This publication sets forth a framework for socio-cultural analysis at the IDB. It is important that the Bank’s operational staff read it, discuss the points it raises, and put it into practice. Much of the Bank’s success in poverty reduction and social inclusion depends on its success in generating and applying knowledge gained from socio-cultural analysis.