Business activities promoted by governments, companies, and financial institutions have the potential to impact the enjoyment of human rights of communities, workers, and consumers. Human rights include the freedoms and entitlements listed in international and regional instruments including the International Bill of Human Rights and the ILO Fundamental Conventions on Rights at Work. The UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (UNGP), launched in 2011, are the authoritative global framework on the business and human rights nexus. Initially a soft-law instrument, elements of the UNGP are developing into mandatory regulations worldwide. The UNGP explain the duty of States regarding business impacts on human rights and clarify that businesses have the responsibility to respect human rights, including conducting human rights due diligence, a process which has assessing and addressing negative human rights impacts at its core. This has sparked the development of new types of impact assessment specifically focusing on human rights (HRIA), but also raised the question as to how human rights can be integrated into other existing types of impact assessment, such as Environmental and Social Impact Assessments (ESIA). While these types of assessments are more established in international standards and national legislation, they oftentimes fall short in explicitly identifying, addressing, or considering human rights impacts. A human rights lens is thus needed to ensure these assessments accurately identify the full range of risks.