Building upon John Ruggie’s “Protect, Respect and Remedy Framework”,2 which was endorsed by the UN Human Rights Council (HRC) in June 2008, the UN Guiding Principles were endorsed by the HRC in June 2011. The UN Guiding Principles further define the concept of human rights due diligence and the expectations of how it should be conducted. The introduction to the UN Guiding Principles emphasises that a company’s responsibility to respect human rights can be discharged through effective due diligence: • explain what is meant by human rights due diligence and the central role that it plays in delivering on the corporate responsibility to respect human rights • assist mining companies in the review of their existing risk management processes and to consider the extent to which they address human rights and • identify how mining companies can enhance or build upon their existing risk management processes, where necessary, to ensure that their approach to human rights due diligence is adequate and consistent with the UN Guiding Principles.1 In addition, the guide aims to introduce a range of the currently available tools on risk management and aspects of human rights due diligence, and assist members to identify which of these may provide useful supporting guidance depending on circumstances. The guide’s purpose is not, however, to duplicate these more detailed documents, nor set out in detail how to undertake a comprehensive ESIA or other such processes that are documented elsewhere. The guide does not prescribe a “one-size-fits-all” approach to human rights due diligence. Rather, it emphasizes that companies need to ensure that their approach adequately responds to the local contexts in which they operate. As such, ICMM members should bear in mind the commentary to UN Guiding Principle 17, and seek expert advice where appropriate.