In light of the ongoing debate on human rights in the extractive industries, the present study contributes to the related discussion on human rights in the mining sector. In constituting the results of a project coop-eration of the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) and the Max-Planck-Foundation for International Peace and the Rule of Law (MPFPR), it combines the expertise of the aforementioned organizations in the fields of mining, development cooperation, and human rights law. Through these means, it attempts to close a gap in the related discussion by providing an impartial analysis that adequately considers the technical and legal correlations. In order to avoid an excessively broad analysis, the present study focuses on the minerals, metals, and coal sector, leaving aside oil and gas, which would require a stand-alone study. The scope of the study must further be limited to the most important gen-eral human rights risk areas. The vast field of particularly affected groups, such as women or children, can only be covered with regard to particular aspects, such as child labor, and certainly requires further attention.