The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, with its pledge to leave no one behind, offers a unique opportunity to strengthen global efforts in tackling the socio-economic vulnerabilities confronting indigenous peoples today. Since its foundation, the ILO has played a key role in promoting the rights of indigenous peoples and improving their socio-economic situation, notably through the rights-based framework of the Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention (No. 169). Convention No. 169 marked its 30th anniversary in 2019 along with the Centenary of the ILO. It is the only international treaty open for ratification with specific provisions for the promotion and protection of the rights of indigenous peoples. It sets out a clear vision and provides specific guidance for the realization of these rights while advancing sustainable development rooted in the aspirations of indigenous women and men.While considerable progress has been made towards addressing the concerns of indigenous peoples, it has been too slow. Several knowledge gaps persist in understanding their social and economic situation. A first step to accelerate the pace of inclusive and sustainable development is to overcome the “invisibility” faced by indigenous women and men in official data and research. This report sets out to address this invisibility and shed light on the situation indigenous women and men find themselves today. At the same time, zooming into the world of work, which is a critical site for understanding the socio-economic realities of indigenous peoples. In so doing, this report engages with two key aspects shaping the lives and prospects of indigenous womenand men – inequalities relative to mainstream society as well as social, cultural, economic and environmental transformations.