The rights of indigenous peoples have, over the past three decades, become an important component of international law and policy, as a result of a movement driven by indigenous peoples, civil society, international mechanisms and States at the domestic, regional and international levels. The United Nations human rights system—its mechanisms, laws and policies—have been at the heart of these developments with bodies such as the United Nations Working Group on Indigenous Populations playing a groundbreaking role, which is continued by the Human Rights Council and its mechanisms, in cooperation with other key actors, including the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues. One of its main achievements was the General Assembly’s adoption in 2007 of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, which, by 2010, was supported by the vast majority of United Nations Member States and opposed by none. It was the result of decades of negotiation between States and indigenous peoples, coming together in a spirit of partnership to endorse the Indigenous Declaration. It applies human rights to indigenous peoples and their specific situations, thereby helping to reverse their historical exclusion from the international legal system. International activity on indigenous peoples’ issues has been expanding also in regional human rights bodies, such as the African and inter-American human rights systems, and into international law and policy areas as diverse as the environment (including climate change), intellectual property and trade. This Fact Sheet provides a reader-friendly overview of the United Nations human rights system and the rights of indigenous peoples. It is designed to give readers: • A summary of indigenous peoples’ rights; • An overview of the international human rights bodies and mecha nisms in relation to indigenous peoples; • A description of the activities of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) related to indigenous peo ples; • A brief summary of relevant regional human rights systems as they engage with indigenous peoples and protect their human rights; and • A summary of some United Nations agencies, beyond the human rights framework, engaged in indigenous peoples’ issues. The Fact Sheet also refers to further sources of information.