The activities of extractive industries on the lands of indigenous peoples have significant human rights impacts. This is not to say that all extractive industries are unwelcome to indigenous peoples or that they all necessarily have negative consequences. There are cases of fruitful negotiations, sometimes after bitter confrontations, and eventually acceptable agreements and outcomes. Some oil, gas andmining companies, especially the largest enterprises, have policies and guidelines on operating on indigenous peoples’ lands and provide training to their staff to make them aware of indigenous cultures and sensibilities. However, despite some positive examples of industry initiatives, the overwhelming picture of indigenous–extractive industry relationsis one of misunderstandings, mistrust, conflict and often violence. Human rights abuses associated with the exploration and exploitation of non-renewable resources include, among others, violation of the right to life, forced displacement and destruction of the environment on which indigenous peoples depend. Extractive industries have had impacts on the health and well-being of indigenous peoples and destroyed sacred sites thereby affecting the right to religion of the peoples concerned. The consequences of such projects have violated the right to an adequate standard of living and the right to food, water and subsistence.