International human rights instruments such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights have not been sufficient to guarantee the survival and well-being of Indigenous Peoples. Most international human rights instruments protect the rights of individuals, whereas Indigenous Peoples have sought the recognition of specific collective rights to ensure the survival of their distinctive identities as groups, their cultures and ways of life. For the past 20 years, the international community has recognised that special attention has to be paid to protecting the individual and collective rights of Indigenous Peoples.1 The main legally binding document entirely focused on the rights of indigenous peoples is the International Labour Organization (ILO) Convention No. 169 (see Section 3). In September 2007, the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. This recognises the rights of Indigenous Peoples on a wide range of issues and provides a universal framework for the international community and States. Both the ILO’s Convention and the UN Declaration recognise Indigenous People’s rights to own and control their lands and the natural resources on those lands, to differing degrees. According to the Declaration, it is a responsibility of the States to establish the mechanism to guarantee those rights.