There are indigenous communities in Africa. These are communities whose ways of life were not taken into account by most post-colonial African policies, a historical injustice that has led to their particular severe marginalization, including dispossession of ancestral lands and inaccessibil-ity to several rights and freedoms enjoyed by the rest of their fellow citizens. Within this human rights-related meaning of the concept “indigenous”, understandably not all Africans can be consid-ered as being indigenous. Communities such as the San of Southern Africa,1 the hunter-gatherers of African tropical forests and the pastoralists of arid lands in several parts of Africa call not for special rights but for redress of historical injustices and enjoyment of all rights on the same footing as the rest of their countrymen and -women. In 2003, the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights (ACHPR) adopted a first ever Report on Indigenous Populations/Communities in Africa. This report highlights, among other things, the cultural uniqueness of African indigenous peoples and the historical injustices they have suffered, before making major recommendations to various stakeholders, including African states and governments. By adopting this report, the African Commission has domesticated the issue of indigenous peoples’ rights, and they can therefore no longer be labeled as western-oriented or copied human rights claims.A main conclusion of the ACHPR report is that the protection of the rights to land and natural resources is fundamental for the survival of indigenous communities in Africa. Lands are, all over the world, central to indigenous peoples’ demands because, more than constituting a mere source of income, ancestral territories are the basis for their livelihood, way of life, culture and existence as communities. Africa is no exception to this paradigm; on the contrary, ancestral lands remain for many African communities, and particularly those who self-identify as indigenous peoples, sacred and embedded with spiritual or cultural values that cannot otherwise be protected and preserved.