This publication has been prepared by the IDB’s ESG (Environmental and Social Safeguards Unit). It is one of a series of publications1 the IDB plans to issue in 2017, addressing the need for better guidance on social issues in projects financed by the IDB. The publication is primarily intended for staff planning and implementing development projects, in particular environmental and social specialists on project teams. More broadly, it should be of relevance to policy makers and practitioners generally. The publication describes principles and content that should be present for a consultation process to be considered “meaningful”. It is consistent with existing IDB environmental and social safeguards policies,2 and reflects both explicit and implicit requirements in these policies and accompanying procedures and requirements. It is also broadly consistent with policy requirements of other IFIs, and with national legislation in many countries. The content of the publication has also been informed by international good practice developed not only by IFIs, but also by UN agencies such as UNDP; academia; civil society; and others, both through formal policy language or guidance, and more informally through evolving case practice experience. Such case practice may with time become formalized or made more explicit as policies and procedures get updated.