This discussion paper is about the social aspects of mine closure. Mine closure can be understood as a form of ‘industrial transformation’. The ideas and debates surrounding industrial transformation, are by no means new. Industrial regions, centres or hubs are generative; they are full of promise, and promises, and have for the last two hundred years, been a cornerstone of worldwide economic growth. However, these same localities can also experience severe disruption, sometimes resulting in long term decline, when technologies, markets and/or business models change.