The World Bank Oil, Gas and Mining Unit, in its capacity as a driver for best practice related to extractive industry contributions to poverty alleviation, has a strong interest in the sustainable development of mine-impacted communities. As part of the growing global expectation that the extractive industry should contribute positively to long-term local development, a discourse has grown surrounding a variety of structures and processes aim ing to deliver development benefits to communities affected by mineral resource projects. Examples of these strategies include social/community investment programs, development forums, community-controlled trusts, development funds, and foundations. These strate gies may be led by government, the companies, the impacted community, or through col laborative bilateral or multisector partnerships and agreements. They may be a regulatory requirement or negotiated voluntarily in response to mining companies’ commitment to corporate social responsibility (CSR) principles. This document describes some of the main considerations and processes regarding the development and implementation of these strategies, specifically in relation to Community Development Agreements (CDAs). In the last few years the World Bank Oil, Gas and Mining Unit has worked to analyze CDAs within the mining sector as an instrument for more sustainable and equitable benefits. This includes using CDAs as a tool to enhance community participation and consultation, manage expectations of involved parties, and ultimately maximize pro-poor benefits to impacted communities while helping to establish “social license to operate” for govern ments and industry. This process of analysis and research has involved a series of reports by the World Bank and external specialists aiming to provide technical input on the process, case studies, les sons learned, and best practices for CDA development. This report builds on previous stud ies to deliver a knowledge product on CDA development with the aim of providing specific assistance to the process and delivery of CDAs. This Source Book has been developed from learnings relating to existing regulations/ requirements, past experiences, and case studies, including the following key studies, which are presented in the enclosed CD. • Community Development Agreements: Model Regulations and Example Guidelines (Otto, 2010); • Mining Community Development Agreements: Practical Experiences and Field Studies (ERM, 2010); and • World Bank Extractive Industries Sourcebook, Good Practice Notes: Community Development Agreements (Centre for Social Responsibility in Mining, University of Queensland, 2011).