These guidelines describe the role of monitoring and evaluation (M&E) in programs to empower women economically. That role is assumed to be threefold: to support effective project implementation (“Are we doing things right?”), to determine whether the desired outcomes are being achieved (“Are we doing the right things?”), and to contribute to the global knowledge base on the types of interventions that are most effective in promoting women’s economic empowerment (“Do we know what works best?”). The primary audience for the guidelines are implementers and funders of women’s economic empowerment (WEE) programs. The purpose is to promote a harmonized approach to M&E in WEE programs, and to provide a common framework for measuring and communicating program outcomes. But the guidelines do not recommend that all WEE programs use the same M&E procedures. Instead, they provide a menu of M&E methods that different WEE program implementers and funders can use to meet their individual needs. The three main categories of M&E are traditional M&E, impact evaluation, and performance evaluation. The guidelines focus on the first two items. The third is a program (or organization) activity that is typically conducted after the completion of projects to draw lessons from multiple projects that can inform the design of new projects. Traditional M&E (simply “M&E” in the guidelines) is most often conducted by projects to assess how effectively their interventions are being implemented, whether the intended groups are receiving project benefits and at what cost, and to identify and correct any problems discovered as quickly as possible. Impact evaluation estimates the causal effects of an intervention on key outcomes and assesses whether the intervention is obtaining value per dollar spent. Although impact evaluation is a program-level activity, it requires effective collaboration between the evaluators and those implementing an intervention.