What Happens in Phase 1? Good planning and scoping will go a long way to ensuring that a HRIA is effectively conducted and that it achieves the desired results. The purpose of scoping is to define the parameters for the assessment by considering: (i) the type of business project or activities; (ii) the human rights context; and (iii) who the relevant stakeholders are. This information is then used to inform the development of the terms of reference (TOR), a written document that presents the scope and purpose of the HRIA. A well-constructed TOR can be critical for ensuring that the subsequent assessment is conducted according to the expected standards and principles. The company and practitioners then build the HRIA team, which should be independent from the company in order to ensure legitimacy. Scoping and TOR should always provide some flexibility to allow increased time and attention to topics and issues that are most relevant, as well as inclusion of unanticipated human rights impacts. While in the scoping phase most information is collected through desktop research, a short and targeted scoping trip by the assessment team to the assessment site(s) to gain an initial on-the-ground overview can be extremely beneficial. It should be included if appropriate based on the complexity of the HRIA context and the scale of the assessment.