The IFC Policy and Performance Standards on Social and Environmental Sustainability were developed to put into practice IFC’s commitment to social and environmental sustainability. The aim of the policy is to address and manage environmental and social risk in IFC investments, and to help IFC and its clients to maximize the development opportunities of our projects. Project-induced in-migration has the potential to significantly affect the environment, local communities, and the project itself, in both positive and negative ways. These negative environmental, social and health impacts can be a major contributor to the project’s overall impact on the environment and affected ‘host’ communities. With regard to the Performance Standards, project-induced in-migration may be characterized as “an unplanned but predictable impact caused by the project” (PS1) that should be anticipated in the Project Environmental and Social Impact Assessments (ESIA) and mitigated in the Environmental and Social Management Plan (ESMP). The phenomenon also has the potential to generate negative impacts for community health, safety, and security (PS4) and negatively affect involuntary resettlement (PS5), biodiversity (PS6), indigenous people (PS7), and cultural heritage (PS8). The direct and indirect impacts of project-induced in-migration on a project can be significant. In broad terms, the phenomenon affects the project’s “social license to operate.” From a business perspective, these impacts can be seen in terms of incremental operational cost, operational risk, and potential reputational risk. This publication has been developed to fill an identified gap in assessing the risk of project induced in-migration and promoting its management. It aims to promote better recognition, understanding, and management of project-induced in-migration. Given the diversity of projects in which IFC is involved, the contexts in which they are developed, and the relationship between project development and local and regional development, this document is relevant for both private and public sector projects, and in particular for large-scale projects in the extractive, infrastructure, and manufacturing sectors. This handbook is designed to assist the wide range of stakeholders who are directly and indirectly affected by project-induced in-migration and involved in its management, including: • Private sector entities establishing projects in areas with a medium-high risk of project induced in-migration; • Local, regional, and national governments that promote private sector economic development; • Government departments, non-governmental organizations, and community-based organizations that promote the social welfare of communities; and • Consultants and development practitioners providing services to the private sector entities.