This document provides methodological guidance on assessing climate change vulnerability, impacts and adaptation as well as on implementing, mon itoring and evaluating adaptation. Unlike many previously published documents and tools, which focus on specific approaches, this guidance covers a wide range of approaches, integrating them into a coherent framework. We thereby emphasize the diversity of adaptation challenges that exist, as well as the variety of approaches and methods needed to adjust to or cope with the effects of cli mate change. A feature of this guidance is that it identifies the principal approaches and methods for addressing different kinds of adaptation challenges. Selecting appropriate methods for climate risk assessment and adaptation requires a series of methodologi cal choices, and this guidance presents criteria and decision trees to assist the reader through those choices. Note that the decision trees provide guid ance through the selection of methods, and not through the adaptation decision themselves. Once the appropriate methods have been identified, we explain how to apply them. We organize the methodological choices accord ing to five general stages of what we call the adap tation learning cycle, which are 1) identifying adap tation needs, 2) identifying adaptation options, 3) appraising adaptation options, 4) planning and implementing adaptation, and 5) monitoring and evaluation. This is an idealized model of adapting to climate change; “real-world” adaptation pro cesses may not be linear, and in fact, may require refinement through iteration. This guidance there fore provides multiple entry points, highlighted in boxes throughout the document, to allow readers to enter (and re-enter) at various stages or sub stages of the process. We should stress that we only consider methods for assessing impacts, vulnerability and capacity insofar as they are embedded into the wider pic ture of advancing adaptation. Assessments for other purposes, such as setting mitigation targets, are not discussed here.