The Centre for Poverty Analysis (CEPA) has been engaged with the Southern Transport Development Project from 2006 to 2011, monitoring the resettlement and compensation of people displaced by the construction of the Colombo-Matara Expressway. The single largest road project ever implemented in Sri Lanka, this undertaking was not an easy task, and was fraught with tension, opposing interests and dissatisfaction among the affected persons. It had repercussions for those who were displaced, as well as for the implementers of the project, including those who advised, monitored, or provided other services to the process of relocation. As with most life experiences, with the passing of time, we tend to forget the sacrifices made and hardships endured. This book then is an attempt to document what happened to the people who had to move, and the different impacts the project had on their lives. It is based on a structured monitoring process carried out over four years, that involved a survey of 400 households, more than 30 group discussions with affected households, and over 450 individual interviews with residents, experts, local government officials and donors. The information was collected mainly in 2006 with follow-up information on selected issues such as livelihoods, vulnerability, community resources and resettlement sites gathered periodically from 2007 – 2011.