This handbook is Part 2 of the Biashara na Haki: Impacts of Businesses on Human Rights series. Part 1, Knowing Your Rights, introduces businesses and their impact on human rights, setting out the different types of businesses, the pressures they face to respect human rights, and the potential impacts they can have on human rights. Part 1 also provides an overview of international instruments, including the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (UNGPs), which established the authoritative global standard that all businesses have a responsibility to respect human rights and reiterated the duty of the State as the primary protector of those rights.1 Part 1 also discusses the human rights-related roles and responsibilities of various actors, including businesses, governments of businesses’ home and host states, international organisations, financial institutions, and multistakeholder and industry initiatives. Part 1 concludes
by discussing specific human rights issues, including labour rights, environmental harm, access to land, security and armed conflict, corruption. and access to remedy. Part 2 is designed to help you – CSOs, community rights advocates, and
human rights defenders, and the communities you work with – develop your analytical, organisational, and engagement skills. It includes practical tools distilled from (and illustrated by) concrete examples and case studies from a broad range of business sectors. By highlighting and weighing different options for engaging with business actors and government, the handbook
encourages you to take an evidence-based, constructive approach to
engagement. Such an approach favours collaborative strategies and tactics such as negotiation, joint problem solving, and campaigning, but does not shy away from more adversarial approaches such as legal action, depending on the specific situation, context, and your defined goals. Ultimately, the affected communities must make an informed decision about which approach to use to reach their goals, with advice and guidance from you. Throughout Part 2, we address CSO representatives in the first person’s narrative, using a direct (‘you’) style, which is meant to make this handbook more user-friendly and engaging.