The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples took over 20 years of hard work by people like Lowitja O’Donoghue, Les Malezer, Mick Dodson and Megan Davis to come to fruition. The adoption of the Declaration is one thing. Now we face the challenge of real implementation. By implementation, I mean making both the intent and spirit of the Declaration real to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. The Declaration is comprehensive and as you go through this document you will see the 46 articles provide guidance for every aspect of our lives. It is only when we can see these articles being translated from abstract concepts to practical improvements in our lives that the spirit and intent of the Declaration will be realised.