Development and humanitarian projects and programmes work in and respond to increasingly complex situations. The presence of vulnerabilityand inequality (V&I) factors such as HIV and AIDS, other chronic illnesses (whether physical or mental health/illness) or disability, in addition to hazards (e.g. floods or drought), conflict, child protection issues, andgenderinequalityall affect the communities and programme partners CAFOD works with and therefore the design and implementation, of all programmes, as well as organisational policies and practices. In order to ensure that programmes and organisations remain effective, and that they do no harm it is essential that V&I factors are considered when designing and implementing development and humanitarian response programmes, and in shaping organisational practices and employment conditions. Focused initiatives addressing all V&I factors are essential but can never be complete or fully effective on their own. Such initiatives must combine with efforts to address the interplay between these factors and broader development and humanitarian responses.