This toolkit companion is an illustrated over view of the trends and challenges in environ ment, mining and development of the Kyrgyz Republic and Central Asia. It focuses on environmental security in the mining sector and highlights selected causes and ingredi ents of recent mining-related conflicts, the lessons learned and the opportunities for solutions. The information comes from inter views with key stakeholders during fieldwork and desk studies, from official and scientific sources and from media accounts. The toolkit companion strives to maintain complete and up-to-date information and to take the neutral position in assessing the local mining conflicts and identifying solu tions. It provides Kyrgyz and region-specific material in support of the toolkit application.